Baking powder, 1 teaspoon

teaspoon cream of tartar plus teaspoon baking soda.

Buttermilk, 1 cup

Sour milk: 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup (let stand 5 minutes before using); or 1 cup plain yogurt.

Chocolate, sweet baking, 4 ounces

cup unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/3 cup sugar and 3 tablespoons shortening.

Chocolate, unsweetened, 1 ounce

3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon cooking oil or shortening, melted.

Chocolate, semisweet, 1 ounce

3 tablespoons semisweet chocolate pieces; or 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar.

Cornstarch, 1 tablespoon (for thickening)

2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

Flour, cake, 1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour.

Flour, self-rising, 1 cup

1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon baking powder, teaspoon salt, and teaspoon baking soda.

Honey, 1 cup

1 cups granulated sugar plus cup water.

Milk, 1 cup

cup evaporated milk plus cup water; or 1 cup water plus 1/3 cup nonfat dry milk powder.

Pumpkin pie spice, 1 teaspoon

teaspoon ground cinnamon plus teaspoon ground ginger, teaspoon ground allspice, and 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg.

Sour cream, dairy, 1 cup

1 cup plain yogurt

Yeast, active dry, 1 package

1 cake compressed yeast

Apple pie spice, 1 teaspoon

teaspoon ground cinnamon plus teaspoon ground nutmeg, 1/8-teaspoon ground allspice, and dash ground cloves or ginger.

1 cup light cream

7/8 cup milk and 3 tablespoons butter

1 cup heavy cream

cup milk 1/3 cup butter

Corn syrup, 1 cup

1 cup granulated sugar plus cup water.

Egg, 1 whole

2 egg whites; 2 egg yolks; or cup frozen egg product, thawed.

Fruit liqueur, 1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon fruit juice.

Gingerroot, grated, 1 teaspoon

teaspoon ground ginger

Half-and-half or light cream, 1 cup

1 tablespoon melted butter of margarine plus enough whole milk to make 1 cup.

Mascarpone cheese, 8 ounces

8 ounces regular cream cheese.

Molasses, 1 cup

1 cup honey

Sugar, granulated, 1 cup

1 cup packed brown sugar